The thesis was made canonical by the Georgian church council in The former date, dedicated to Saint Andrew's arrival in Georgia, is a public holiday in Georgia. Cypriot tradition holds that a ship which was transporting Saint Andrew went off course and ran aground. Upon coming ashore, Andrew struck the rocks with his staff at which point a spring of healing waters gushed forth. Using it, the sight of the ship's captain, who had been blind in one eye, was restored.
Thereafter, the site became a place of pilgrimage and a fortified monastery stood there in the 12th century, from which Isaac Comnenus negotiated his surrender to Richard the Lionheart. In the 15th century, a small chapel was built close to the shore. The main monastery of the current church dates to the 18th century.
Other pilgrimages are more recent. The story is told that in , the son of a Maria Georgiou was kidnapped. Seventeen years later, Saint Andrew appeared to her in a dream, telling her to pray for her son's return at the monastery. Living in Anatolia, she embarked on the crossing to Cyprus on a very crowded boat. As she was telling her story during the journey, one of the passengers, a young Dervish priest, became more and more interested. Asking if her son had any distinguishing marks, he stripped off his clothes to reveal the same marks and mother and son were thus reunited.
Apostolos Andreas Monastery Greek: The monastery is an important site to the Cypriot Orthodox Church. It was once known as 'the Lourdes of Cyprus', served not by an organized community of monks but by a changing group of volunteer priests and laymen. Both Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities consider the monastery a holy place. As such, it is visited by many people for votive prayers.
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The first reference regards the small chapel at Luqa dedicated to Andrew dates to This chapel contained three altars, one of them dedicated to Andrew. At one time, many fishermen lived in the village of Luqa, and this may be the main reason for choosing Andrew as patron saint. The statue of Andrew was sculpted in wood by Giuseppe Scolaro in This statue underwent several restoration works including that of performed by the Maltese artist Abraham Gatt.
Such a tradition was however not widely acknowledged until the 20th century. According to Hippolyte of Antioch, died c.
Simon Magus - Wikipedia
According to some modern Romanian scholars, the idea of early Christianisation is unsustainable. They take the idea to be a part of an ideology of protochronism which purports that the Orthodox Church has been a companion and defender of the Romanian people for its entire history, which was then used for propaganda purposes during the communist era,  although this is disputed. Tradition regarding the early Christian history of Ukraine holds that the apostle Andrew preached on the southern borders of modern-day Ukraine , along the Black Sea.
Legend has it that he travelled up the Dnieper River and reached the future location of Kiev , where he erected a cross on the site where the Saint Andrew's Church of Kiev currently stands, and where he prophesied the foundation of a great Christian city. Ukraine and Russia , the latter country using the Saint Andrew's Cross on its naval ensign.
The third East Slavic nation, Belarus , however, reveres Euphrosyne of Polotsk , a local saint, as its patron instead.
The oldest surviving manuscripts are two: The only historical Regulus Riagail or Rule whose name is preserved in the tower of St Rule was an Irish monk expelled from Ireland with Saint Columba ; his dates, however, are c. There are good reasons for supposing that the relics were originally in the collection of Acca, bishop of Hexham , who took them into Pictish country when he was driven from Hexham c.
On the morning of battle white clouds forming an X shape in the sky were said to have appeared. The white saltire set against a celestial blue background is said to have been adopted as the design of the flag of Scotland on the basis of this legend. Andrew's connection with Scotland may have been reinforced following the Synod of Whitby , when the Celtic Church felt that Columba had been "outranked" by Peter and that Peter's brother would make a higher ranking patron. Numerous parish churches in the Church of Scotland and congregations of other Christian churches in Scotland are named after Andrew.
A local superstition uses the cross of Saint Andrew as a hex sign on the fireplaces in northern England and Scotland to prevent witches from flying down the chimney and entering the house to do mischief. By placing the Saint Andrew's cross on one of the fireplace posts or lintels , witches are prevented from entering through this opening.
In this case, it is similar to the use of a witch ball , although the cross will actively prevent witches from entering, and the witch ball will passively delay or entice the witch, and perhaps entrap it. A form of St. Andrew's cross called the Cross of Bourgogne was used as the flag of the Duchy of Burgundy, and after the Duchy was acquired by Spain, by the Spanish Crown, and later as a Spanish naval flag and finally as an army battle flag up until Today, it is still a part of various Spanish military insignia and makes part of the Coat of Arms of the king of Spain as it did with General Franco.
In Spain , Saint Andrew is the patron of several locations: In the Western Esoteric tradition , Andrew is associated with the astrological sign of Virgo. Andrew is the patron saint of several countries and cities including: He was also the patron saint of Prussia and of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He is considered the founder and the first bishop of the Church of Byzantium and is consequently the patron saint of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
When and how did the Twelve Apostles die?
The flag of Scotland and consequently the Union Flag and those of some of the former colonies of the British Empire feature Saint Andrew's saltire cross. The Confederate flag also features a saltire commonly referred to as a St Andrew's cross, although its designer, William Porcher Miles , said he changed it from an upright cross to a saltire so that it would not be a religious symbol but merely a heraldic device. The Alabama flag also shows that device. The feast of Andrew is observed on 30 November in both the Eastern and Western churches, and is the national day of Scotland.
In the traditional liturgical books of the Catholic Church, the feast of Saint Andrew is the first feast day in the Proper of Saints. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Saint Andrew disambiguation. Saint Andrew the Apostle by Artus Wolffort. Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Action of Churches Together in Scotland. Saint Andrew in Romania. Christianity portal Biography portal. Retrieved 30 November Robert Appleton Company, Retrieved 6 September Encyclopedia of early Christianity , p. Andrew's Cross appeared for the first time in the tenth century, but did not become an iconographic standard before the seventeenth.
Calvert was unable to find a sculptural representation of Andrew on the saltire cross earlier than an architectural capital from Quercy, of the early twelfth century. Andrew in the National Archives of Scotland". Archived from the original on 16 September Andrew Given to Greek Orthodox Church. Then laid they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost. And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money, saying, "Give me also this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy Ghost.
Thou hast neither part nor lot in this matter: Repent therefore of this thy wickedness, and pray God, if perhaps the thought [Gr. Epinoia ]  of thine heart may be forgiven thee, for I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity. Josephus mentions a magician named Atomus Simon in Latin manuscripts  as being involved with the procurator Felix , King Agrippa II and his sister Drusilla, where Felix has Simon convince Drusilla to marry him instead of the man she was engaged to.
Some scholars have considered the two to be identical,  although this is not generally accepted, as the Simon of Josephus is a Jew rather than a Samaritan. Justin Martyr in his Apologies , and in a lost work against heresies, which Irenaeus used as his main source and Irenaeus Adversus Haereses record that after being cast out by the Apostles, Simon Magus came to Rome where, having joined to himself a profligate woman of the name of Helen, he gave out that it was he who appeared among the Jews as the Son, in Samaria as the Father and among other nations as the Holy Spirit.
He performed such signs by magic acts during the reign of Claudius that he was regarded as a god and honored with a statue on the island in the Tiber which the two bridges cross, with the inscription Simoni Deo Sancto ,  "To Simon the Holy God" First Apology , XXVI. However, in the 16th century, a statue was unearthed on the island in question, inscribed to Semo Sancus , a Sabine deity,  leading most scholars to believe that Justin Martyr confused Semoni Sancus with Simon.
Justin and Irenaeus are the first to recount the myth of Simon and Helen, which became the center of Simonian doctrine. In the beginning God had his first thought, his Ennoia , which was female, and that thought was to create the angels. The First Thought then descended into the lower regions and created the angels. But the angels rebelled against her out of jealousy and created the world as her prison, imprisoning her in a female body. Thereafter, she was reincarnated many times, each time being shamed.
Her many reincarnations included Helen of Troy , among others, and she finally was reincarnated as Helen, a slave and prostitute in the Phoenician city of Tyre.
God then descended in the form of Simon Magus, to rescue his Ennoia , and to confer salvation upon men through knowledge of himself. For as the angels were mismanaging the world, owing to their individual lust for rule, he had come to set things straight, and had descended under a changed form, likening himself to the Principalities and Powers through whom he passed, so that among men he appeared as a man, though he was not a man, and was thought to have suffered in Judaea, though he had not suffered.
But the prophets had delivered their prophecies under the inspiration of the world-creating angels: For works were not just by nature, but only by convention, in accordance with the enactments of the world-creating angels, who by precepts of this kind sought to bring men into slavery. Wherefore he promised that the world should be dissolved, and that those who were his should be freed from the dominion of the world-creators.
In this account of Simon there is a large portion common to almost all forms of Gnostic myths, together with something special to this form. They have in common the place in the work of creation assigned to the female principle, the conception of the Deity; the ignorance of the rulers of this lower world with regard to the Supreme Power; the descent of the female Sophia into the lower regions, and her inability to return. Special to the Simonian tale is the identification of Simon himself with the Supreme, and of his consort Helena with the female principle.
In Philosophumena , Hippolytus retells the narrative on Simon written by Irenaeus who in his turn based it on the lost Syntagma of Justin. Upon the story of "the lost sheep," Hippolytus comments as follows: But the liar was enamoured of this wench, whose name was Helen, and had bought her and had her to wife, and it was out of respect for his disciples that he invented this fairy-tale. Also, Hippolytus demonstrates acquaintance with the folk tradition on Simon which depicts him rather as a magician than Gnostic, and in constant conflict with Peter also present in the apocrypha and Pseudo-Clementine literature.
Reduced to despair by the curse laid upon him by Peter in the Acts, Simon soon abjured the faith and embarked on the career of a sorcerer: Until he came to Rome also and fell foul of the Apostles. Peter withstood him on many occasions. At last he came [. When he was on the point of being shown up, he said, in order to gain time, that if he were buried alive he would rise again on the third day. So he bade that a tomb should be dug by his disciples and that he should be buried in it.
Now they did what they were ordered, but he remained there until now: Hippolytus gives a much more doctrinally detailed account of Simonianism , including a system of divine emanations and interpretations of the Old Testament , with extensive quotations from the Apophasis Megale. Some believe that Hippolytus' account is of a later, more developed form of Simonianism, and that the original doctrines of the group were simpler, close to the account given by Justin Martyr and Irenaeus this account however is also included in Hippolytus' work.
Hippolytus says the free love doctrine was held by them in its purest form, and speaks in language similar to that of Irenaeus about the variety of magic arts practiced by the Simonians, and also of their having images of Simon and Helen under the forms of Zeus and Athena. But he also adds, "if any one, on seeing the images either of Simon or Helen, shall call them by those names, he is cast out, as showing ignorance of the mysteries. Epiphanius writes that there were some Simonians still in existence in his day c.
AD , but he speaks of them as almost extinct. Gitta, he says, had sunk from a town into a village.
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Epiphanius further charges Simon with having tried to wrest the words of St. Paul about the armour of God Ephesians 6: He tells us also that he gave barbaric names to the "principalities and powers," and that he was the beginning of the Gnostics. The Law, according to him, was not of God, but of "the sinister power. Cyril of Jerusalem AD in the sixth of his Catechetical Lectures prefaces his history of the Manichaeans by a brief account of earlier heresies: Simon Magus, he says, had given out that he was going to be translated to heaven, and was actually careening through the air in a chariot drawn by demons when Peter and Paul knelt down and prayed, and their prayers brought him to earth a mangled corpse.
The apocryphal Acts of Peter gives a more elaborate tale of Simon Magus' death. Simon is performing magic in the Forum , and in order to prove himself to be a god, he levitates up into the air above the Forum. The apostle Peter prays to God to stop his flying, and he stops mid-air and falls into a place called "the Sacra Via " meaning "Holy Way" in Latin , breaking his legs "in three parts".
The previously non-hostile crowd then stones him. Now gravely injured, he had some people carry him on a bed at night from Rome to Ariccia , and was brought from there to Terracina to a person named Castor, who on accusations of sorcery was banished from Rome. The Acts then continue to say that he died "while being sorely cut by two physicians".
Another apocryphal document, the Acts of Peter and Paul gives a slightly different version of the above incident, which was shown in the context of a debate in front of the Emperor Nero. In this version, Paul the Apostle is present along with Peter, Simon levitates from a high wooden tower made upon his request, and dies "divided into four parts" due to the fall. Peter and Paul were then put in prison by Nero while ordering Simon's body be kept carefully for three days thinking he would rise again.
They are of uncertain date and authorship, and seem to have been worked over by several hands in the interest of diverse forms of belief. Simon was a Samaritan, and a native of Gitta.
The name of his father was Antonius, that of his mother Rachel. And sometimes he "darkly hinted" that he himself was Christ , calling himself the Standing One. Which name he used to indicate that he would stand for ever, and had no cause in him for bodily decay. He did not believe that the God who created the world was the highest, nor that the dead would rise.
He denied Jerusalem , and introduced Mount Gerizim in its stead. In place of the Christ of the Christians he proclaimed himself; and the Law he allegorized in accordance with his own preconceptions. He did indeed preach righteousness and judgment to come. There was one John the Baptist , who was the forerunner of Jesus in accordance with the law of parity; and as Jesus had twelve Apostles, bearing the number of the twelve solar months, so had he thirty leading men, making up the monthly tale of the moon.
One of these thirty leading men was a woman called Helen, and the first and most esteemed by John was Simon. But on the death of John he was away in Egypt for the practice of magic, and one Dositheus , by spreading a false report of Simon's death, succeeded in installing himself as head of the sect. Simon on coming back thought it better to dissemble, and, pretending friendship for Dositheus, accepted the second place. Soon, however, he began to hint to the thirty that Dositheus was not as well acquainted as he might be with the doctrines of the school.
Dositheus, when he perceived that Simon was depreciating him, fearing lest his reputation among men might be obscured for he himself was supposed to be the Standing One , moved with rage, when they met as usual at the school, seized a rod, and began to beat Simon; but suddenly the rod seemed to pass through his body, as if it had been smoke. On which Dositheus, being astonished, says to him, 'Tell me if thou art the Standing One, that I may adore thee. Not long after this he died. The encounter between both Dositheus and Simon Magus was the beginnings of the sect of Simonians.
The narrative goes on to say that Simon, having fallen in love with Helen, took her about with him, saying that she had come down into the world from the highest heavens, and was his mistress, inasmuch as she was Sophia, the Mother of All. It was for her sake, he said, that the Greeks and Barbarians fought the Trojan War , deluding themselves with an image of truth, for the real being was then present with the First God. A description is given of how he made a familiar spirit for himself by conjuring the soul out of a boy and keeping his image in his bedroom, and many instances of his feats of magic are given.
The Pseudo-Clementine writings were used in the 4th century by members of the Ebionite sect, one characteristic of which was hostility to Paul, whom they refused to recognize as an apostle. Simon's magical powers are juxtaposed with Peter's powers in order to express Peter's authority over Simon through the power of prayer, and in the 17th Homily, the identification of Paul with Simon Magus is effected. Simon is there made to maintain that he has a better knowledge of the mind of Jesus than the disciples, who had seen and conversed with Jesus in person.
His reason for this strange assertion is that visions are superior to waking reality, as divine is superior to human. But can any one be educated for teaching by vision? And if you shall say, "It is possible," why did the Teacher remain and converse with waking men for a whole year? And how can we believe you even as to the fact that he appeared to you?