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We have conducted a detailed exploratory analysis of an II million year long almost continuous record of relative geomagnetic paleointensity from a sediment core acquired on Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 73, at Site in the South Atlantic. We assess the quality of the paleointensity record using spectral methods and conclude that the relative intensity record is minimally influenced by climate variations.

Isothermal remanence is shown to be the most effective normalizer for these data, although both susceptibility and anhysteretic remanence are also adequate.

Statistical analysis shows that the paleointensity variations follow a gamma distribution, and are compatible with predictions from modified paleosecular variation models and global absolute paleointensity data. When subdivided by polarity interval, the variability in paleointensity is proportional to the average, and further, the average is weakly correlated with interval length. Spectral estimates for times from The magnetic field is stronger, and more variable, and a strong peak in the spectrum occurs at about 8 Myr This peak magi be a reflection of the same signal as recorded by the small variations known as tiny wiggles seen in marine magnetic anomaly profiles.

We present a family of statistical models for paleosecular variation PSV of the geomagnetic field that are compatible with paleodirectional and paleointensity variations in lava flows sampling the last 5 Ma, and explore what paleomagnetic observables might be used to discriminate among the various family members.

We distinguish statistical models with axial anisotropy, which provide a suitable description for an earth with homogeneous boundary conditions at the core-mantle interface from those with more general anisotropy corresponding to geographically heterogeneous boundary conditions. The models revise and extend earlier ones, which are themselves descendants of CP88, devised by Constable and Parker [Constable, C. Statistics of the geomagnetic secular variation for the past 5 m.

In CP88, secular variation is described by statistical variability of each Gauss coefficient in a spherical harmonic description of the geomagnetic field, with each coefficient treated as a normally distributed random variable: The dipole terms have a special status in CP88, with a non-zero mean for the axial-dipole, and lower variance than predicted from the spatial power spectrum.

All non-dipole terms have zero mean except the axial-quadrupole. CP88 is untenable for two reasons: Non-zonal longitudinal variations in PSV, such as the flux lobes seen in the historical magnetic field, are simulated using the non-zonal models. Both the zonal and non-zonal models fit summary statistics of the present dataset.

We investigate the influence of persistent non-zonal influences in PSV on various paleomagnetic observables.

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It is shown that virtual geomagnetic pole VGP dispersion is rather insensitive to longitudinal variations in structure of PSV, and that inclination dispersion has the potential to be more informative given the right site distribution. There is also the possibility of using paleointensity and geographic variations in the frequency of occurrence of excursional directions to identify appropriate PSV models. C Elsevier Science B.

Paleomagnetic samples were obtained for 34 flows and one dike; successful mean paleomagnetic directions were obtained for 28 of these 35 sites. Our radiometric ages are consistent with the reverse polarity paleomagnetic field directions, and indicate that the entire exposed part of the Nordeste complex is of a late Matuyama age. The duration of volcanism across Sao Miguel is significantly less than previously believed, which has important implications for regional melt generation processes, and temporal sampling of the geomagnetic field. Observed stable isotope and trace element trends across the island can be explained, at least in part, by communication between different magma source regions at depth.

Our results demonstrate that precise radiometric dating of numerous flows sampled is essential to accurate inferences of long-term geomagnetic field behavior. Negative inclination anomalies are observed for both the normal and reverse polarity time-averaged field. Within the data uncertainties, normal and reverse polarity field directions are antipodal, but the reverse polarity field shows a significant deviation from a geocentric axial dipole direction.

This paper presents a compilation of intensity data covering the past 10 millennia ArcheoInt. This compilation, which upgrades the one of Korte et al. The present compilation also includes important metadata for evaluating the intensity data quality and providing a foundation to guide improved selection criteria.

Earth's Core and Lower Mantle - CRC Press Book

Approximately half of the selected intensity data are associated with at least an inclination value. To constrain the axial and full dipole evolution over the past three millennia requires that we avoid any overrepresentation of the western Eurasian data. We introduce a first-order regional weighting scheme based on the definition of eight widely distributed regions of 30 degrees width within which the selected data are numerous enough.

The regional curves of virtual axial dipole moments VADM and of mixed VADM-virtual dipole moments VDM averaged over sliding windows of years and years testify for strong contributions from either equatorial dipole or nondipole components.

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A second minimum is present around the eighth century A. This variation pattern is compatible with the one deduced from earlier, more sophisticated analysis based on the inversion of both intensity and directional data. In particular, there is a good agreement among all VADMs and dipole moment estimates over the historical period, which further strengthens the validity of our weighting scheme.

Variations of the geomagnetic field prior to direct observations are inferred from archeo- and paleomagnetic experiments. Seemingly unusual variations not seen in the present-day and historical field are of particular interest to constrain the full range of core dynamics.

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  7. Recently, archeomagnetic intensity spikes, characterized by very high field values that appear to be associated with rapid secular variation rates, have been reported from several parts of the world. They were first noted in data from the Levant at around BCE.

    Earth's Core and Lower Mantle

    A recent re-assessment of previous and new Levantine data, involving a rigorous quality assessment, interprets the observations as an extreme local geomagnetic high with at least two intensity spikes between the 11th and 8th centuries BCE. Subsequent reports of similar features from Asia, the Canary Islands and Texas raise the question of whether such features might be common occurrences, or whether they might even be part of a global magnetic field feature. Here we use spherical harmonic modeling to test two hypotheses: Our results suggest that the spikes originate from intense flux patches growing and decaying mostly in situ, combined with stronger and more variable dipole moment than shown by previous global field models.

    Stacks of globally distributed relative paleointensity records from sediment cores are used to study temporal variations in the strength of the geomagnetic dipole. We assess the intrinsic accuracy and resolution of such stacks, which may be limited by errors in paleointensity, non-dipole field contributions, and the age scales assigned to each sediment core. Our approach employs two types of simulations. Numerical geodynamo models generate accurate predictions of time series of magnetic variations anywhere in the world.

    The predicted variations are then degraded using an appropriate statistical model to simulate expected age and paleointensity errors. A series of experiments identify the major contributors to error and loss of resolution in the resulting stacks. The statistical model simulates rock magnetic and measurement errors in paleointensity, and age errors due to finite sampling and approximations inherent in interpolation, incomplete or inaccurate tie point information, and sedimentation rate variations. Data sampling and interpolation to a designated age scale cause substantial decorrelation, and control the maximum level of agreement attainable between completely accurate records.

    The particular method of interpolation appears to have little effect on the coherence between accurate records, but denser tie point data improve the agreement. Age errors decorrelate geomagnetic signals, usually at shorter periods, although they can destroy coherence over a broad range of periods. The poor correlation between neighboring paleomagnetic records often observed in real data can be accounted for by age errors of moderate magnitude.

    In a global dataset of 20 records, modeled after the SINT compilation and spanning kyr, our results show that dipole variations with periods longer than about 20 kyr can be recovered by the stacking process. Reasonable contributions to error in the paleointensity itself have a modest influence on the result, as do non-dipole field contributions whose effect is minor at periods longer than 10 kyr.

    Modest errors in the ages of tie points probably account for most of the degradation in geomagnetic signal. Stacked sedimentary paleomagnetic records can be improved by denser temporal sampling and careful selection of independent high-quality tie points.

    C Elsevier B. The geodynamo in Earth's core is responsible for magnetic field changes on diverse timescales, including numerous enigmatic reversals of the dipole field polarity. Understanding the physical processes driving them is an active area of investigation via both paleomagnetic work and numerical simulations of the geodynamo.

    Some previous studies on geomagnetic field intensity detected a sawtooth pattern of intensity around reversals: Here we characterize distinct statistical properties for increasing and decreasing dipole strength over the past two million years. Examining the geomagnetic field and its time derivative on a range of time scales reveals that for periods longer than about 25 ky there is a clear asymmetry in the statistical distributions for growth versus decay rates of the dipole strength.

    These differences are not limited to times when the field is reversing, suggesting that the asymmetry is controlled by fundamental physical processes underlying all paleosecular variation. The longer decay cycle might suggest the possibility of episodic periods of subcritical dynamo activity where the field is dominated by diffusive processes, followed by transient episodes of strong growth of the axial dipole.

    However, our work finds no clear separation of timescales for the influence of diffusive and convective processes on dipole moment: Geomagnetic intensity fluctuations provide important constraints on time-scales associated with dynamical processes in the outer core. After smoothing to reject high frequency variations PADM2M's average growth rate is larger than its decay rate. The observed asymmetry in rates of change is compatible with longer term diffusive decay of the ADM balanced by advective growth on shorter time scales, and provides a potentially useful diagnostic for evaluating numerical geodynamo simulations.

    We re-analyze the PADM2M record using improved low-pass filtering to identify asymmetry and quantify its uncertainty via bootstrap methods before applying the new methodology to other kinds of records. Asymmetry in distribution of axial dipole moment derivatives is quantified using the geomagnetic skewness coefficient, sg. A positive value indicates the distribution has a longer positive tail and the average growth rate is greater than the average decay rate.

    The original asymmetry noted by Ziegler and Constable is significant and does not depend on the specifics of the analysis. A long-term record of geomagnetic intensity should also be preserved in the thermoremanent magnetization of oceanic crust recovered by inversion of stacked profiles of marine magnetic anomalies.

    We examine three near bottom surveys: Our results confirm that marine magnetic anomalies can carry a record of the asymmetric geomagnetic field behavior first found for Ma in PADM2M, and show that it was also present during the earlier time interval from 9. C The Authors. Published by Elsevier B. In studies of the anisotropy of susceptibility or remanence of paleomagnetic samples it is conventional to specify the anisotropy in terms of the parameters of the anisotropy ellipsoids, namely the directions of the principal axes of the ellipsoid and their associated eigenvalues.

    Confidence intervals for these parameters have in the past often been estimated by using a linearization scheme to propagate the effect of small changes through the eigenvalue decomposition. The validity of these approximations is explored using a Monte-Carlo simulation from measurements that are presumed normally distributed, showing that there are circumstances in which the linearization scheme gives confidence intervals that are much too small. Q-Q plots indicate that the common assumption that the noise in the measurements is Gaussian does not always hold.

    Because of these shortcomings in the conventional technique we propose using a bootstrap resampling scheme to find empirically the distribution of uncertainties in the results. Confidence intervals for the eigenvalues are found directly from their empirical distributions. For the principal axes, approximate elliptical regions of confidence on the unit sphere are parameterized in terms of the Kent or FB5 distribution.

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